Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance
(HFAM)

Course Description

Investigating the maintenance aspects of aviation accidents and incidents can frequently be a complex yet beneficial undertaking. As operators move towards second- and even third- tier outsourcing for their maintenance activities, the complexity of the maintenance-related aspects of accident and incident investigations continues to increase. Today’s investigator, even if familiar with basic maintenance practices, must update his/her knowledge to become acquainted with the intricacies and potential pitfalls of these new organizational arrangements.

This course brings dynamic and focused Human Factors training in Aviation Maintenance (HFAM) to the civilian and military aviation maintenance workplaces. HFAM, often also referred to as Maintenance Resource Management (MRM), seeks to reduce human error resulting in a safer and more efficient maintenance operation.

Human factors, as the largest causal factor of accidents, must be targeted for major safety efforts if an improved safety record is to be achieved.

The course design parallels the maintenance human factors course SCSI provides to FAA Aviation Safety Inspectors (ASIs) which the FAA has designated an “FAA-Accepted” training course. The basis of this three-day course is a metaphorical pyramid made up of a foundation, application and evaluation of a human factors program.

Once establishing the “concepts” or building blocks of the foundation of human factors training, the course looks at the application of human factors in the work environment. The final phase of the pyramid is to develop and evaluate a class designed human factors program based on a case study of an actual accident caused by the maintenance organization of the airline.

Developed first for the United States Air Force under contract, this training course draws from the Federal Aviation Administration’s Advisory Circular 120-72, but goes well beyond it in scope, detail and application techniques. Although initially developed and offered as military MRM training courses, SCSI has adapted the concepts and lessons learned from military course and applied them to commercial aviation maintenance operations, Part 145 repair station, and GA operations. In addition, we have incorporated concepts illustrated in ICAO, EASA and JAA required programs.

Regardless of setting, maintenance error is commonly found to be one of the top three causes of aviation accidents:

  • Almost 12% of all accidents reporting a maintenance factor.
  • When failure or malfunction of aircraft equipment is part of an accident or incident, fully one-third of these malfunctions relate to a maintenance error.
  • Whenever engine delays are encountered, maintenance error accounts for nearly 50% of the causes.

Maintenance operations are also affected by human input that shows up as weaknesses in organizational processes leading to

  • lack of motivation
  • fatigue and stress
  • time pressure
  • misperception of hazards
  • inadequate skills

Many maintenance organizations try to change the human condition when they should be changing the conditions under which people work. Treat errors as an expected and foreseeable part of maintenance work. Attention to maintenance human factors can raise efficiency, effectiveness and safety in aviation environments. This translates to better expense control and long-term safety benefits. The results can be impressive. At one major airline, after only twelve months of MRM training, the following was reported:

  • Ground damage repair costs decreased by 68%
  • Maintenance related ground damage decreased by 34%
  • Occupational injury hours decreased by 27%
  • Occupational injury medical payout decreased by 12%

Accidents and incidents can be seen as a breakdown of the organization. Errors are the consequences of the processes, decisions and culture established by the organization. These organizational errors are examined for root cause and interventions are discussed to avoid or trap future errors.

This training is based on experiential learning through a series of interactive exercises which encourage class participation. The course methodology is an integrated, interactive classroom workshop composed of lecture, group discussion, exercises, video analysis, case studies and practical breakout sessions. Participants apply the concepts and skills learned to real-world scenarios.

Workshops consist of learning modules which are addressed from the individual and organizational perspective. As with all courses, SCSI can bring this course to a location of your choosing by contract. In a contract course, course topics can be tailored to your organization needs and concerns.

Who Should Attend

Anyone associated with flying operations or safety management will benefit from Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance training and those responsible for developing, designing and implementing safety programs in their maintenance organizations to fulfill regulatory requirements. Getting an airplane into the air is a team effort and requires the utmost coordination to do it safely. The goal of any production oriented organization is to operate efficiently and effectively. This course can be customized to meet the needs of the customer. Both military and commercial aviation communities are utilizing this type of training to enhance performance and safety.

Participants should include:

  • Corporate/Senior level managers
  • Flight Department managers
  • Schedulers/Dispatchers
  • Unit Safety Officers
  • Quality Assurance and Oversight Personnel
  • Mechanics
  • Ramp Workers
  • Flight Attendants/Flight crew members
  • ATC Controllers
  • Pilots
  • Anyone with an interest in aviation safety

How You Will Benefit

  • You will learn the basic concepts of human factors as applied to aviation maintenance.
  • You will learn the regulatory requirements for a human factors safety program under various federal and international guidelines.
  • You will understand human error and its impact on the organization, workplace and worker.
  • You will learn the program implementation strategies taught to the FAA Aviation Safety Inspectors.
  • You will learn to recognize the “Dirty Dozen” of aviation maintenance.
  • You will learn to identify organizational norms and establish a cultural safety presence.
  • You will develop an awareness of your worth to the system.
  • You will learn concepts for developing an internal human factors training program which can reduce errors and mitigate the consequences of these errors.
  • By course completion you will have the essentials needed to develop, implement and self-evaluate a human factors program tailored to you organization.
  • This course is accepted by the Board of Certified Safety Professionals for Continuance of Certification Credit.
  • HFAM is one of the optional courses in the Certificate in Safety Management Systems granted by SCSI.
  • SCSI will award 2.4 CEUs to each participant who successfully completes this course.

Course Topics

  • HFAM History & FAA Regulations/guidance
  • Human Factors in the Workplace
  • Human Error Principles & Just Culture
  • Supervisory & Organizational Error and Norms
  • Diminished Human Performance
  • Stress and Fatigue
  • Effective Communications
  • Individual and Organizational Situation Awareness
  • HF Process Application
  • Conflict Management
  • Accident Causation/Event Investigation
  • Human Factors Training Program Development & Evaluation

Course References

  • FAA Advisory Circular 120-72 : Maintenance Resource Management Training
  • UK CAA CAP 716: Aviation Maintenance Human Factors (EASA Part-145)
  • JAA Human Factors Working Group Report: Human Factors in maintenance
  • Operator’s Manual: Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance, FAA, October 6, 2006
  • EASA 145 Certification
  • Flight Standards Service Plan for Maintenance Human Factors (FY 2006-2007), Federal Aviation Administration, Sept 30,2006
  • Vol. 3, Chapter 24, Section 2, Evaluate and Accept a Maintenance Human Factors Training Program, FAA, Order 8900, Chg 7, December 17, 2007
  • Order 9550.8A, Human Factors Policy FAA, December 1, 2005
  • Maintenance Resource Management Programs Provide Tools for Reducing Human Error, James T. McKenna, Flight Safety Digest, October, 2002, Flight Safety Foundation

Course Administration

The Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance course consists of 3 training days (24 classroom hours). Students receive a course book to include class notes, lecture outlines, additional reference material and a Certificate of Completion. The classes start each morning at 0800 and ending at 1700 on the last day. Courses are scheduled Tuesday through Thursday. This course can be conducted on-site at a location of your choice by contract at a significant savings and reduction of lost-productivity costs.

Instructors

Richard M. Anglemyer

Richard (Rick) Anglemyer is the Director of Human Factors Training Programs for Southern California Safety Institute.

Rick has forty years of commercial and military aviation experience with over thirty years experience in training design, development and instruction in aviation operations and maintenance. Rick specializes in a variety of aviation safety related training to include: Crew Resource Management (CRM) training for flight crews, dispatchers, operation managers and Air Traffic Controllers; Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) for mechanics and technicians and human performance analysis in aircraft accident investigations. He has taught MRM to several thousand mechanics in hundreds of workshops. Rick most recently designed, developed and taught the initial courses in Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance (HFAM) for the U.S. Air Force and FAA. His HFAM course for the FAA’s ASIs has been approved as an FAA-accepted training program.

Rick holds a Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree with emphasis in personnel management and a Bachelor of Business Administration` (BBA) degree in marketing.